A description of male and female genitalia and a reconstruction of copulatory and fertilisation events in Calopteryx haemorrhoidalis (Vander Linden) (Odonata: Calopterygidae).
The genitalia have a “design” remarkably similar to those of other representatives of the family. The main female structures are the bursa copulatrix, a T-shaped spermatheca, a pair of vaginal plates bearing a variable number of mechanoreceptive sensilla, and a ganglion located at the VIII abdominal segment. The male introminent organ is a curved, sclerotised aedeagus that ends in a distal penis head. This latter structure bears 2 lateral appendages which are covered by recurved spines. A construction of the fertilisation and copulatory events is proposed based on descriptive and experimental evidence in other zygopterans as well as in this species. The female genital anatomy suggests fertilisation occurs in the manner proposed for other odonates. Experimental evidence shown in this work suggests that, during fertilisation, the egg stimulates the mechanoreceptive sensilla and elicits contractile activity of the muscles that surround the sperm storage organs (SSOs). The contractile activity is likely to be mediated by the VIII abdominal segment ganglion. As a consequence of the muscular contractions, the SSOs eject sperm which arrive to the site where the egg is and fertilise it. During copulation, the aedeagus “imitates” the presence of an egg in the vaginal plates and stimulates the mechanoreceptive sensilla inducing spermathecal sperm ejection. It is likely that spermathecal sperm is ejected to the bursa copulatrix where it is removed by the penis head and lateral appendages. After this sperm displacement process, the copulating male’s sperm, stored in the seminal vesicle, is transferred, through a canal-like passage, by the aedeagus to the SSOs. Since femalefemale exhibit a considerable intra- and inter-individual variation in sensillum distribution and number on the plates, it is discussed whether this may have an adaptive significance in terms of retaining more control over stored sperm for female during male stimulation.
Kalkman, V. J.; Wasscher, M.; Van Pelt, G. J.
An annotated checklist of the Odonata of Turkey.
In addition to the checklist, spp. of which the taxonomic status has changed, or with significant changes in the known distribution, are annotated. At present a total of 96 spp. (6 of which are divisible into 2 or more sspp.) are now known to occur in Turkey with certainty, and at least 15 spp. and an additional 5 sspp. are to be expected. Ischnura fountaineae is new to the Turkish fauna. The sole Turkish record of Ophiogomphus cecilia pertains to O. reductus which is here mentioned for the first time from Turkish territory.
Wilson, K. D. P.; Reels, G. T.
Odonata of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China, part I: Zygoptera.
Taxonomic and faunistic information is provided on the Zygoptera of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. Megalestes haui sp. n. (holotype: male, Shiwandashan), M. tuska sp. n. (holotype: male, Dayaoshan), Rhipidolestes laui sp. n. (holotype: male, Cenwanglaoshan), Calicnemia haksik sp. n. (holotype: male, Cenwanglaoshan), Coeliccia galbina sp. n. (holotype: male, Longrui) and Drepanosticta magna sp. n. (holotype: male, Cenwanglaoshan) are described. Sinolestes truncata Needham is synonymised withSinolestes edita Needham. The hitherto unknown male of Indocypha katharina (Needham) and female of Schmiditiphaeo vietnamensis (van Tol & Rozendaal) are described.Devadatta ducatrix Lieftinck. Euphaea guerini Rambur. Euphaea superba Selys. Schmidtiphaea vietnamensis van Tol & Rozendaal, Indocnemis ambigua (Asahina),Calicnemia miles (Laidlaw), and an undescribed species of Drepanosticta are recorded from China for the first time. The status of Guangxi as an important centre of odonate biodiversity is discussed.
Lajeunesse, M. J.; Forbes, M. R.
Acomparison of structural size and condition in two female morphs of the damselfly Nehalennia irene(Hagen)(Zygoptera: Coenagrionidae).
Female colour polymorphism in coenagrionid damselflies is genetically determined for the 4 spp. so far studied. No size differences between female morphs have been reported. In another sp., size differences between morphs do exist but the genetic basis of the polymorphism has not been explored. In N. irene, 2 female morphs exist: one is similar to the male in both colour and pattern (the androchrome), whereas the other differs from the male (the more common gynochrome). No differences are shown in lengths of wing, femur or tarsus between androchromes and gynochromes, nor any differences in multivariate estimates of size or in wet mass corrected for these size estimates were found. The study controls for time of season, which is known to influence the size of emerging temperate damselflies. The results concur with results from other spp. where the genetic basis of colour polymorphism is known.
Novelo-Gutierrez,R.; Gonzalez-Soriano, E.
The larva of Lestes alfonsoi Gonzalez & Novelo (Zygoptera: Lestidae).
Detailed description and illustrations are provided. A comparison with other Mexican larvae of the genus and a key to separate species are also included. Larva of L. alfonsoiseems not to be related to any of the known larvae of the genus, although it shares more features in common with the larva of L. alacer.
David Allen Lewis Davies.
A brief biography of Dr N.W. Moore (born 24 Feb. 1923; retired Chief Advisory Officer of the (British) Nature Conservancy Council, founder Chairman of the Odonata Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission, Hon. Fellow of the Linnean Society and the British Dragonfly Society, Member of Honour of the Societas Internationalis Odonatologica, Fellow of the Royal Entomological Society, etc. and founding chairman of the international group promoting Odon. conservation) is followed by his shortened bibliography (1939-2002; 135 titles, fairly complete for odonatological publications, but ca 45 papers on pesticides and environment are omitted). – N.W.M. is a naturalist biologist whose lifelong aim has been to conserve wildlife and to relate the conservation of wildlife to human activities and welfare. In addition to his very wideranging contribution to conservation, he always maintained his long term research on odon. After retiring (1983), he created a reserve beside his garden, and dragonflies again took centre stage. Most of his odonatological work is devoted to studies on adult territorial behaviour, distribution and community structure, and to various aspects of habitat and species conservation.
|Ishizawa, N.; Arai, Y.
The response to rotating objects by Anotogaster sieboldii (Selys) males (Anisoptera: Cordulegastridae).
During their patrolling flight male A. sieboldii responded to a rotating fan by hovering. The dragonflies did not respond to the playback sound of the fan. However, they did respond to the rotation of a mini desk fan which was observed through the window of a sound insulated box. The dragonflies responded to rotation of discs of various patterns, even when the ambient temperatures were low for summer; thus they did not respond due to thermoregulation. Only males responded, and they did not respond to rotation of low velocity. – males responded to a suspended male or female that was fluttering, but not when it was still. Therefore, it was concluded that the response to rotating objects by males might be regarded as behaviour to ascertain whether a rotating object is a female or not. The hovering rate (HVR) in relation to rotation velocity and colour patterns is discussed.
|Purse, B. V.; Thompson, D. J.
Reproductive morphology and behaviour in Coenagrion mercuriale (Charpentier) (Zygoptera: Coenagrionidae).
The reproductive morphology and behaviour of male and female at the northern edge of the sp. range, in Britain are described. Copula duration was relatively short and occurred in tussocks around the stream and oviposition usually occurred in tandem. Although there was no significant relationship between body size and clutch size, large clutches were only found in the largest individuals and larger females produced larger, and thus better-provisioned eggs. Examination of the dimensions of the aedeagus and the female sperm storage organs revealed that males could remove rival sperm from both the bursa copulatrix and spermatheca consistent with the presence of extensive proximally oriented microspination with sperm masses on the surface of the aedeagi. femalefemale store sperm from previous matings and a few partition clutches between consecutive oviposition episodes. The fulfilment of these ecological and behavioural pre-requisites and the predominance of mate guarding during oviposition suggests that sperm competition by sperm displacement is prevalent in this sp. and constitutes a substantial selection pressure.
|van Tol, J.; Muller, R. A.
Forest damselflies of the Philippines, their evolution and present status, with the description of Drepanosticta moorei spec. nov. from Luzon (Zygoptera: Platystictidae).
D. moorei sp. n. (holotype male Philippines, Luzon, Nueva Viscaya, Sta Fe, Atbo River, 550-800 m, 10-VI-1991, in RMNH) is described, and illustrated. It is closely related to D. belyshevi Hamalainen from the Philippines. Some general remarks on the historical biogeography and the present status of the family are made. The current distribution of the family (SE Asia, Middle and northern South America) presumably dates back to the Upper Cretaceous.
|Vick, G. S.
Notes on the genus Notogomphus Selys, 1858 in Cameroon with the descriptions of two new species (Anisoptera: Gomphidae).
Twelve Notogomphus specimens from Cameroon were available for analysis. Previously only N. spinosus Karsch was known from the country; its holotype and allotype have been re-examined and comments are included. N. maryae sp. n (holotype male: SW Province, Mt Kupe, Nhiangse, 25-VII-1998 and N. moorei sp. n (holotype male: SW Province, Kodmin, 15-XII-1998 are described. The types are in the author’s collection. A key to separate the 3 spp. is provided.
Reproductive behaviour in Somatochlora arctica (Zetter-Stedt) (Anisoptera: Corduliidae).
The reproductive behaviour in relation to structural habitat resources was studied at mountain bogs of the Central Alps (Tyrol, Austria). The malemale searched for mates at small clearings in coniferous forests where numerous scattered oviposition sites were hidden in dense vegetation, using 3 tactics: (1) they scanned the oviposition sites by slow flights at low height over large vegetated areas (scan flight), (2) they patrolled restricted areas with frequent hover stops while chasing any intruder (patrol flight), (3) they dived repeatedly into gaps of emergent vegetation, searching for females close to the water (dive flights). 62% of the females remained undiscovered by males, 11% fled successfully and 27% accepted copulation (n = 139). The copulation was always initiated in the air or on the ground when both partners plunged into the vegetation following a clash. Immediately after the take off – and possibly after intramale sperm translocation – the tandem assumed the wheel position. The pairs often circled over the clearings for several minutes and perched on sunlit branches of spruce or pine trees, 0.8-12 m above ground (mean 2.75 m, n = 20). During copulation that lasted 31-150 min (mean 85 min, n = 14) rhythmic pumping movements of the male basal abdominal segments with frequencies from 0.14 to 0.36 Hz were observed. Copulation terminated by disengagement of the genitalia, then the partners separated immediately or after a short tandem flight. Oviposition never followed directly upon copulation and always occurred unguarded. The oviposition sites were selected carefully at shallow puddles among emergent vegetation. Eggs were laid by touching soaked moss or turf mud with the tip of the abdomen during rhythmic dipping flight movements with mean frequency of 0.61 Hz. One oviposition bout lasted 1-3 min and featured an egg flow of 1.7-4.5 eggs per s. Ovipositing females were sometimes successfully attacked by frogs (Rana temporaria), and males were occasionally found in orb-webs of spiders (Araneus sp.); however, predation risk was low at rendez-vous sites. Sperm competition is discussed with respect to behaviour during copulation and to the morphology of male and female genitalia.
|Butler, S. G.
The larva of Isomma hieroglyphicum Selys, 1892 (Anisoptera: Gomphidae).
A male final instar larva from the N of Madagascar is described and illustrated. The taxonomic position of the sp. is discussed on the basis of a morphological comparison, using 3 specimens of the closely related genus Phyllogomphus, and the description of the adult Malgassogomphus robinsoni.
The synonymy of the East African Notogomphus cataractae Consiglio, 1978 and N. immisericors Campion, 1923 with N. lecythus Campion, 1923 (Anisoptera: Gomphidae).
Based on the examination of the holotypes of the 3 taxa and on fresh material from Kenya, these appear conspecific. Consequently, N. cataractae and N. immisericors are placed in synonymy of N. lecythus.
|Machado, A. B. M.
Neoneura moorei spec. nov. from the Amazonian region of Brazil (Zygoptera: Protoneuridae).
The new sp. is described and illustrated from 3 males and 3 females collected in the state of Rondonia, Brazil (holotype male, allotype female: Ji-Parana, II-1961, deposited in the author’s collection). By the arrangement of the decumbent process of the dorsal branch of the superior appendages it belongs to the N. maria-group whose spp. had never been found in Brazil. It differs from the other spp. of this group by its color pattern, by the structure of the male superior appendages and shape of the female posterior prothoracic lobe.
|von Ellenrieder, N.; Muzon, J.
Description of the last larval instar of Aeshna (Marmaraeschna) pallipes Fraser, 1947 (Anisoptera: Aeshnidae).
The last larval instar is described and illustrated, based on reared specimens from Argentina (Salta and La Rioja provinces). It differs from the only otherMarmaraeschna larva known, A. (M.) brevicercia, by the antennae surpassing anterior margin of labrum, lateral spine of abdominal segment IX as long as segment X, and male basal lamina of epiproct with rounded tip and half as long as epiproct. Both pallipes and brevicercia larvae differ from other Aeshna larvae by the U-shaped apical excision of epiproct and the marginal tubercles on sides of ligula medial cleft.
|Hornung, J. P. ; Rice, C. L.
Odonata and wetland quality in southern Alberta, Canada: A preliminary study.
The relationship between odon. and wetland quality was investigated in Brooks, from May until Sept. 1999. Sixteen study sites were each visited 7 times to survey adult dragonflies and aquatic macroinvertebrates, record environmental parameters, collect water samples, record vegetative characteristics, and assess beef cattle grazing influences. 25 odonate spp. were recorded, of which Ischnura verticalis is new to Alberta. A significant negative correlation was detected between cattle presence (measured as percent stems grazed surrounding the wetland) and odon. species richness (p=0.022; r2=0.322), teneral species richness (p=0.018; r2=0.337), and the Shannon-Weiner diversity indices (p=0.060; r2=0.230) of the study sites. In addition, vegetation species richness and odon. species richness show a positive correlation (p=0.066; r2=0.221). A logistic regression establishes that the absence of Coenagrion angulatum, Enallagma ebrium andAeshna interrupta is associated with high cattle impacts, or low vegetation species richness. This study outlines the effect that cattle can have on wetland odon. species diversity and recommends that measures are taken to protect wetlands, while offering an incentive and reasonable cost/benefit ratio to both rangeland and wetland mangers.
|Samraoui, B.; Weekers, P. H. H.; Dumont, H. J.
Two taxa within the north African Lestes virens complex (Zygoptera: Lestidae).
A study of Lestes “virens” in Algeria, based on SEM, size analysis, and molecular analysis of nuclear ribosomal DNA genes (18S, 5.8S) and spacers (ITS1 and 2), reveals the presence of two taxa that can be separated by the length and sequence of their ITS1 and their adult coloration, but not by molecular features in their 18S and 5.8S genes, the ITS2 spacer, and morphology. This contrasts with the Enallagma cyathigerum-group, where geographically defined morphological differences were unaccompanied by differences in ITS1 and ITS2. Previous ecological data had shown the first lestid to be a summer, and the second an autumnal reproducer. The red autumnal species is here named Lestes numidicus sp. n. (holotype male, allotype female: Algeria, Lac des Oiseaux, X-1993; deposited in IRSN, Brussels); the status of the green summer species is discussed. It probably corresponds to L. virens, but this is likely to be a hybrid taxon, resulting from the postglacial introgression of L. numidicus with a taxon invading from the East, via the Iberian Peninsula. L. virens vestalis from France is likely to be introgressed as well. In case this hypothesis is confirmed, the first junior synonym available. L. marikovskii (Belyshev) from Kazakhstan, applies to the taxon extending from Kazakhstan-Tajikistan to Central Europe.
|Szallassy, N.; Bardosi, E.; Szabo, Z. D.; Szep, T.; Devai, G.
Fluctuating asymmetry, survival and mating success in male Libellula fulva Muller (Anisoptera: Libellulidae).
The studies were conducted at Kutas canal near Artand, Hungary. In order to reveal whether there is any relationship between wing fluctuating asymmetry and mating success in mated (observed at least once in wheel position) and solitary male male (not involved in pairing during the study period), 106 males were marked and their wing length between arculus and pterostigma measured. Mated males had more symmetrical forewings, but in the case of hindwings there were no differences between solitary and mated individuals. The survival rate did not differ between the 2 groups and it was constant over time. The probability of recapture was higher in mated male male and varied with time. The number of hours spent with observation did not explain the variation in the recapture rate.
The composition of sperm bundles in Aeshna juncea (L.) (Anisoptera: Aeshnidae).
Using light and electron microscopy, sperm packing has been studied in the large sperm bundles of an aeshnid dragonfly. Each large bundle is built up of variously-sized smaller bundles which probably reflects the intracyst formation procedure. It is proposed that initially there is a gathering of immature sperm cells into small bundles at several sites within the testicular cyst, and secondly all sperm heads are bundled together. This construction of subunits may be of importance to bundle break-down and release of individual sperm cells after transfer to the female reproductive organs.
|Butler, S. G.
The larva of Phyllomacromia trifasciata (Rambur, 1842) (Anisoptera: Macromiidae).
A female final instar larva from NW Madagascar is described and illustrated. The generic affinities of Phyllomacromia are briefly discussed.
|Malikova, E. I.; Ivanov, P. Yu.
The larva of Shaogomphus schmidti (Asahina, 1956) (Anisoptera: Gomphidae).
The final instar (exuviae) from Primorye and the Amur R., Russia is described, illustrated and compared with S. postocularis epophthalmus (Sel.).
|Rehn, A. C.
Oligoclada teretidentis spec. nov. from eastern Ecuador (Anisoptera: Libellulidae).
The new sp. is described and illustrated (holotype male, allotype female: Ecuador, Orellana prov., forested shore of oxbow lagoon near Rio Tiputini, approximately 1 km. NW of Biological Research Station, Parque Nacional Yasuni, 11-X-2001; deposited in UMMZ, Ann Arbor, MI, USA). Species is peculiar in having a large yellowish patch on the ventral mesepisternum and by discrete lateral bands of pruinosity on synthorax (these bands yellow in females) and, in the male, by the ventral, rounded tooth at 1/2 length of cercus.
|Samways, M. J.
Conservation of an endemic odonate fauna in the Seychelles archipelago.
The odonate species richness of the granitic islands of Seychelles, a biodiversity hotspot, is significantly correlated to island size. The larger islands also have the highest elevations and hence the most streams from cloud catching as well as from downpours. The Seychelles odon. fauna can be divided into 2 groups: (1) endemic spp., and, (2) geographically-widespread eurytopic, vagile spp. The endemic spp. are elevational fugitives that need high-elevation forest cover, even if secondary. They are remarkably tolerant of temporary drying out of streams. In contrast, the widespread spp. occur at low elevations, are pool spp., and are tolerant of removal of forest cover. They emigrate when the pools dry out. Conservation of the endemic taxa depends on maintaining cloud-catching forest, although evidence suggests that their populations are maintained even where the forest is partly alien invasive trees or secondary regrowth.
Teinobasis alluaudi Martin, 1896 from mainland Africa: Notes on ecology and biogeography (Zygoptera: Coenagrionidae).
New records of T. alluaudi have been made from coastal forests of Kenya and Tanzania and from Pemba and Zanzibar Islands, Tanzania. Habitat and reproduction of this sp. are described. The systematic status of T. alluaudi, T. a. berlandi Schmidt, 1951 and T. malawiensis Pinhey, 1966 are discussed.
The ultimate instar larvae of Orthemis aequilibris Calv. and of O. biolleyi Calv. are described and illustrated for the first time. The penultimate instar of the supposed larva of Diastatops pullata (Burm.) is described and illustrated. D. pullata is considered again as a valid species. Elga leptostyla Ris has peculiar setae on the occiput.
Gonzalez-Soriano, E.; Cordoba-Aguilar, A.
The sexual behaviour and a case of male phenotypic dimorphism in P. quinta are described: black-winged (BW) males and hyaline-winged (HW) males. Similar to other territorial odon. spp., some males defended a space that females used for oviposition while other males acted as satellites. Copulation took place in 2 stages which differed in abdominal movement orientation and duration. Copulation duration varied between morphs and was frequently disrupted. During disruption, the genitalia of both sexes disengaged although the tandem position (the male’s abdominal appendices grasping the female’s prothorax) was maintained. Disruptions, which took place during the first stage (a stage during which displacement of rival sperm occurs in most odon. spp.), were sometimes followed by emissions of sperm from the vagina. Male morphs exhibit striking behavioural differences: HW malemale do not defend territories, but BW males do, and the former copulate for longer and show more copulatory disruptions. Some stages of female behaviour are described and suggested as instances during which females may be exerting mate choice: females copulated on fewer occasions with HW males, copulations with this morph were longer but ovipositions were not, and sperm emissions (possibly, sperm from previous mates) and copulatory disruptions of BW males were less frequent. Because of these differences, it is suggested this is a unique sp. to test current ideas of female control in an insect order in which the idea of male “control” has been traditional.
Schultz, H.; Waringer, J. A.; Chovanec, A.
The ecological status of waterbodies situated in a Danubian floodplain section at Tulln (Lower Austria) was assessed by a dragonfly survey using the “Odonata Habitat Index” (OHI) approach suggested by CHOVANEC & WARINGER (2001, Regulated Riv. Res. Mngmt 17:493-507). The investigation was carried out at 28 standing water bodies and 2 reference sites situated directly at the Danube. Stretches of 100 m shorelength were mapped and the “Representative Spectrum of Odonata Species” (SCHMIDT, 1985, Odonatologica 14: 127-133) was recorded. Only autochthonous spp. were used for the assessment procedure. A total of 11 Zygoptera and 20 Anisoptera spp. was recorded, 29 of them autochthonous. Site-specific Odonata Habitat Indices ranged from 1.72 to 3.67. The OHI of the only reference site where Odonata were detected directly at the Danube was 1.38. The mean OHI for the whole floodplain section was 2.79. These figures indicate a relatively high level of habitat diversity. By comparing this status quo with reference conditions derived from the overall habitat situation before the regulation and from old species inventories dating back to the 19th century, the status of the Tulln floodplain section was ranked as class II (“good ecological status”) in a 5-tiered classification scheme.
Daigle, J. J.
The new sp. is described from eastern Ecuador (holotype male and allotype female, in copula: Ecuador, Napo prov., Primavera, Lake Taracoa lakeshore and nearby areas, 26-VII-1978, deposited in the FSCA, Gainesville, FL, USA). males are distinguished from its congeners by the slender paraprocts, and both males and females can be distinguished by their very small laterally directed thoracic horns.
Lodge, R. J. ; Freeland, J. R.
Studies of population genetics and phylogenetics require samples from individuals representing a variety of spp. and populations. Collecting the necessary individuals may be problematic, particularly for seasonal, rare, or geographically remote organisms. Museum collections therefore provide a potentially valuable resource, and the widespread use of polymerase chain reactions (PCR) means that target regions of DNA can be amplified from very small amounts of tissue. Here modifications to DNA extraction techniques are described that have allowed the authors to extract, amplify, and sequence a portion of mitochondrial DNA from parts of single dragonfly legs taken from museum specimens up to 80 yrs old. It is anticipated that in future these techniques will be applied to a range of odon, studies, including questions of conservation genetics.
The new sp. (holotype male: Phatang, Vang Vieng area, central Laos, 20-IV-2002; deposited at NSMT, Tokyo) is described, illustrated and compared with the allied spp.
von Ellenrieder, N.
Agnophilogenia Kennedy is shown to be a junior synonym of Philogenia Selys based on a comparison of diagnostic characters of the holotype female of its only known sp., A. monotis, with those of Philogenia spp. An analysis of the described spp. of Philogenia suggests that P. tinalandia Bick & Bick represents a junior synonym of P. monotis (Kennedy). The male holotype of P. tinalandia is illustrated and compared with the female holotype of A. monotis.